Iraqi Journal of Market Research and Consumer Protection <p><strong>Scientific refereed journal, accredited for the purposes of scientific promotions, issued by the market research and consumer protection center, university of Baghdad, Iraq with two numbers a year, publishes scientific research in the fields of social sciences directly related to the market and consumer and in the field of several including </strong><strong>public health, </strong><strong>marketing, Economics, Environment, Agriculture, Pure Sciences, and Information</strong></p> <p> </p> Market Research and Consumer Protection Center, University of Baghdad en-US Iraqi Journal of Market Research and Consumer Protection 2071-3894 THE ROLE OF COMMODITY DUMPING IN ENCOURAGING THE IRAQI CONSUMER TO BUY NON- ESSENTIAL GOODS <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>The research aims to study the effect of the commodity dumping phenomenon that Iraq suffered after 2003 on the consumption pattern of individuals, towards the acquisition of non-essential goods (luxury). To achieve our goal we relied on the questionnaire as a main tool for obtaining information related to the research, and it was distributed on a random sample of consumers in the city of Baghdad with 250 questionnaires. The answers of the research sample were analyzed using the statistical program (SPSS). The percentage weights and the factorial analysis method were used also to arrange the variables that affected on changing consumption patterns. The research reached a set of conclusions:</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The degree of impact of the variables (economic, social and geographical) reached to76.503%, which considers as a good percentage of their impact on the consumer. The economic effects ranked first in their impact by changing the consumption pattern and the trend towards buying unnecessary goods, followed by the geographical effects and social effects respectively. One of the most important recommendations of the research was the quantitative and qualitative determination of the goods allowed to enter the local markets in accordance to quality standards, imposing high customs tariffs on imported goods, especially those non-essential goods, and control of border ports.&nbsp; </strong></p> Wisal A. Husain Mahmud A. J. Alkhafaji Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 1 11 EVALUATION OF INFORMATION LABEL FOR SOME LOCAL PICKLED PRODUCTS AND ESTIMATION OF SODIUM BENZOATE THEREIN <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>The study aimed to evaluate the information label of some local pickle products and estimate sodium benzoate therein. 85 samples of locally made pickles were collected from Baghdad city markets and randomly from five different areas in Baghdad</strong> <strong>it included (Al-Shula, Al-Bayaa, Al-Nahrawan, Al-Taji, and Abu Ghraib), which were divided into groups P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5, respectively, according to those areas,</strong> <strong>&nbsp;samples information label was scanned and compared with the Iraqi standard specification for the information card of packaged and canned food IQS 230,</strong> <strong>the results showed that 25.9% of the samples were devoid of the indication card information, 32.9% matched and 41.20% did not match, and 71.8% of the pickled samples gave a positive test result when the qualitative detection of sodium benzoate, this indicates that it is used to preserve the product , as for 28.2%, the result was negative, the average concentration of this substance for the samples for groups P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 was 1704,23, 973,67, 995,81, 1216,27 and 1142,19 mg/kg respectively,</strong> <strong>40.98% of the samples analyzed in which the concentration of sodium benzoate exceeds the permissible limit of 1000 mg/kg that was determined by the Iraqi standard specification for pickles IQS 1128.</strong></p> Raafat A. Abu-Almaaly Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 12 18 RELATIONSHIP OF LHX3 GENE POLYMORPHISM TO FERTILITY RATE IN LOCAL AND SHAMI GOATS <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>The study was conducted at the ruminant research station of the general commission for agricultural research/Ministry of Agriculture, as well as the laboratory of genetic resources of the department of livestock/Ministry of Agriculture and the laboratory of the college of agriculture engineering science, with the aim of determine the genotypic of the expression region (intron 2 and part of exon 3) of the LHX3 gene And its relationship to the fertility rate in local and Shami goats. For this purpose, the RFLP technique was used, and the percentages of genotypes for the LHX3 gene in the local goat sample were 29.17, 50.00, 20.83 for the TT, AT, and AA genotypes, respectively, while in the Shami goats, the genotypes of the LHX3 gene in the goat sample were 29.17, 50.00, and 20.83 Shami 44.00, 56.00 and 0.00 for the TT, AT, and AA genotypes, respectively, and it was found that there was a significant effect of the multiple genotypes of the LHX3 gene on the fertility rate in local and Shami goats. It was found that the important reproductive trait in goats is the fertility trait, which is affected by several aspects, including environmental And administrative as well as genetic influences, as I found a lot of genetic mutations, As the percentage of twins reaches 42% in goats, according to the breed, through genetic selection assisted by markers (MAS). The values of the genetic equivalent for fecundity of goats are approximately 0.02 - 0.15.</strong></p> Lina A. Salam Ali N. Abdulla Riyad H. Sunkal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 19 25 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW DEMULSIFIER FROM NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMER <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>This research included the preparation and characterization of new demulsifies from natural and synthetic polymers of chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol that are environmentally friendly and at the same time have high efficacy comparable to emulsifiers. imported foreign. The prepared compounds were examined using infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and all the spectral signals of the polymers were in good agreement with the chemical composition of the polymers. And the melting and decomposition that occur on polymers at high temperatures. The effect of the length and type of side chain in the compositions of polymers on the process of water separation of oil emulsions was studied, and they had an important impact on the levels of water separation. The solubility behavior of polymers was also known, so that there was a solubility difference in Different organic solvents according to the type of the side chain of a hydrocarbon nature, and the best solubility of the prepared polymers was a solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide). The best polymerization time was found (12) h, as well as the best temperature at which polymerization takes place is (70 </strong><strong>°C</strong><strong>) and the prepared emulsion was compared with The commercial emulsifier was evaluated for its efficiency in separating water from crude oil (crude oil Basra) and compared to the commercial emulsifier, it was more efficient than the commercial one in separating water from oil.</strong></p> Muna A. Turki Sana H. Awad Sura K. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 26 33 EFFECT OF ADDING QUERCETIN TO TRIS EXTENDER IN SOME SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF AWASSI RAMS AFTER DIFFERENT PERIODS OF CRYOPRESERVATION <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>The study evaluated the effect of adding quercetin to some characteristics of the sperm of the ram. This study was conducted in the animal field, Department of Animal Production, College of Agricultural Engineering Science, University of Baghdad</strong> <strong>for the period 5/12/2021 to 20/2/2022. In this experiment, 3 rams were used at the age of 2-2.5 years and weighed 50-55 kg. The semen was collected early in the morning and once a week and the semen was pooled to remove the individual differences. The treatments were divided: quercetin-free control group, treatment T1 (3 µL/mL quercetin), T2 treatment (6 µL/mL quercetin), T3 treatment (9 µL/mL quercetin). The result of the study showed a significant increased (p&lt;0.01) of T2 treatment in the percentage of individual sperm motility during the cooling period (2 and 24 h). T3 treatment showed a significant increase (p&lt;0.05) at (48 and 72 h) of individual motility. On the other hand, T2 treatment showed a significant increased (p&lt;0.01) in the viability of sperm at (2 and 24 h) of cooling preservation, while T3 treatment showed a significant increase at (48 and 72 h) cooling preservation for the viability of sperm. The result indicated that adding quercetin does not effect of total abnormality of sperm for all treatments. The result presented&nbsp; significant increased (p&lt;0.05) percentage of&nbsp; HOST for T2 and T3 treatments. The results showed a significant increase at ( p&lt;0.01) for T2 treatment at (2 and 48 h) on the other hand T1 showed a significant increase at 72 h. for the same character.</strong></p> Eehab T Raheem Firas A. Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Market Research and Consumer Protection 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 34 39 EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD TRAITS OF MAIZE <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>A field experiment was carried out in the fields of the college of agricultural engineering sciences, university of Baghdad during the fall season of 2021, in order to find out which of the cultivated genotypes of maize are efficient under nitrogen fertilization. The experiment was applied according to a RCBD (split plot design with three replications). The genotypes of experiment (Baghdad, 5018 and Sarah) and&nbsp; supplying three levels of nitrogen fertilizer, which are N1 (100 kg/ha),&nbsp; N2 (200 kg/ha) and N3&nbsp; (300 kg/ha), the results of the statistical analysis are showed the superiority of the cultivar Sarah in the trait of number of days until 50% silking, chlorophyll index, number of pods per plant, number of grains per row and number of seeds per row, where their averages were 61 d, 590.27 mg/m<sup>2</sup>, 2.0 ear<sup>-1</sup>, 48.78 grains/row and 818.07 ear<sup>-1</sup> respectively, there were no significant differences between the genotypes in the traits of number of rows per ear, weight of 100 grains and total grain yield. The increase in nitrogen fertilizer caused an increasing of traits, especially at the highest level N3, where it gave the highest average of the number days 50% tasseling, the number of silking 50%, the number of ears per plant, the number of rows per ear, the number of grains per row, the number of grains per ear, and weight 100 grains, and caused of increasing of characteristic of the total grain yield, and the averages were 59 d, 63.11 d, 2.2 earbuds-<sup>1</sup>, 18.622 ear<sup>-1</sup>, 48.78 grains/row, 993.0&nbsp; grains/ear, 31.78 g, and 14. 88 tons/ha respectively. </strong></p> Sarah I. Okab Ziyad A. Abed Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 40 49 AREAS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING PROCESS <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The aim of the research is to identify the impact of the areas of organizational change in strategic marketing planning in cement factories operating within the city of Al-Khums, and this effect was measured using a questionnaire consisting of 28 phrases, and it was relied on the descriptive approach that suits the nature of the subject of the research, while the research community consists of heads And members of the board of directors, authorized managers, unit managers and heads of departments in the factories under study, which numbered 55 respondents, during the month of September of the year 2021, and a sample of the comprehensive survey of the research community was selected, and the SPSS statistical program was used to analyze the data, and the research reached results, the most important of which is that there is weak interest in Follow-up of the change by the departments of the factories in question, and the impact of the areas of organizational change on the strategic marketing planning in the factories in question was significant</strong></p> Hasan M. M. Al-Sagheer Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 50 64 EFFECT OF USING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CAMEL FAT (HUMP FAT) ON PHYSIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SAUSAGE FROM BEEF CAMEL AND CHICKEN <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>This study was conducted to determine the effect of various levels of hump fat (HF) used in manufacturing of camel, beef and chicken sausage to understand the effect of (HF) on physicochemical composition sausage, Different levels of hump fat (5, 7, and 10 %) were used, physicochemical compositions like (moisture, protein, fat, Ash, water holding capacity, shrinkage, cooking loss and pH) were determined. Results of the study revealed that moisture content showed high significant differences (P≤0.01)among treatments groups, Camel sausage and beef sausage tended to have highest values while chicken sausage reported the lowest value. The study showed no significant difference (P≤0.05) among the treatment groups although 7% HF reported the highest value of moisture. Crude protein values showed no significant differences depending on sausage type, while it exhibited significant differences (P≤0.05) among the treatments groups and 7% HF reported the highest value. Ether extract values showed no significant difference (P≤0.05) among the treatments groups due to both sausage type and Hump fat level.</strong> <strong>Due to sausage types ash values showed significant differences (P≤0.05) among&nbsp;&nbsp; treatments where&nbsp;&nbsp; camel sausage samples&nbsp; showed the highest value while chicken sausage samples showed the lowest value. Concerning to Water Holding Capacity (W.H.C) sausage type factor reported no significant differences (P≤0.01)among treatments group. Due to hump fat levels the study showed highly significant differences (P≤0.05) among the treatment groups although 7% HF reported the highest value. On the other hands Cooking Loss, Shrinkage and pH showed no significant difference (P≤0.05) among the treatment groups in both factors types of sausage and different levels of hump fat. Hump fat in percentage 5%, 7% and 10% could be incorporate in sausage formulation and the best level of fat in sausage formulation has 7%.</strong></p> Hassan E Hassan Mohammed Z Eskander Yasir H. Elhashmi Mohammed Elhatim. I Abdelmageed Faiza A Omer Enitsar A Ali Moawya I Yousif Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 65 73 EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER SOURCRS AND CHEMICL FERTILIZATION ON SOME SOIL PHYSICL TRAITS AND YIELD OF SUMMER SQUASH (Cucurbta Pepo L.) <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results showed that the organic fertilizer mixture (1:1) 30 tons/ha with chemical fertilization recorded the lowest level of bulk density of 1.2 g/cm<sup>3</sup></strong><strong>, </strong><strong>the organic fertilizer mixture (1:1) 30 tons/ha with chemical fertilization recorded the highest percentage of aggregation stability amounting to 16.17%, the organic fertilizer palm fronds recorded the highest level of ready water with an average of 5.50 cm<sup>3</sup>/cm<sup>3</sup> and the organic fertilizer mixture (1:1) 30 tons/ha without chemical fertilization recorded the highest level of ready water as it reached 6.93%, the organic fertilizer mixture (1:1) 30 tons/ha with chemical fertilization gave the largest production amount, which amounted to 26.67 tons/ha</strong></p> Dhyaa A. N Al-Halfi Sinan S. J. Al-Azzawi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 74 81 EFFECT OF Artemisia vulgaris L. AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON SOME GERMINATION PROPERTIES AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF LINSEED <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; A laboratory experiment was carried out during winter season of 2021 in the Seed Technology Laboratory- College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences/ University of Baghdad, to find out the allopathic effects of aerobic and terrestrial aqueous extracts of <em>Artemisia vulgaris</em> L. on the seed germination and seedling growth of linseed. A factorial experiment according to a completely randomized design (CRD)at three replicates was used; the first factor in clouded type of aqueous extract for two plant parts which were aerobic (stems and leaves) and terrestrial (root and rhizomes), while the second factor included five concentrations of each aqueous extract of plant part 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The results showed that there was significant effect of aqueous extract types on the studied traits; the terrestrial aqueous extract gave the highest germination percentage 64.67% and germination speed 25.37%/d, whereas the aerobic aqueous extract gave a highest mean of radicle length 2.5936 cm. Regarding of aqueous extract concentrations of <em>Artemisia vulgaris</em> weed, the concentration of 25% of Artemisia aqueous extract was significantly superior and achieved the highest mean of germination speed 27.25 %/day, shoot length 3.98 cm, radicle dry weight 0.0043 g and shoot dry weight 0.0239 g, while the control treatment 0% was significantly superior in the germination percentage 100% and radicle length 2.6615 cm. The interaction between two factors had significant effect on the germination percentage and germination speed only.</strong></p> Raghad M Khoursheed Dalia S Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 82 89 EFFECT OF ADDITION RAW BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED BY Lactobacillus delbrueckii Sub-Sp. bulgaricus ON SOFT CHEESE <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The effect of adding raw bacteriocin produced by <em>Lactobacillus bulgaricus</em> to cheese curd at an amount of (5 and 10 and 15) mL/kg cheese as a biological preservative to prolong the shelf life of soft cheese, in addition to the control treatment, knowing that each 1 mL of bacteriocin filter contains 15 units/ mL of bacteriocin. The results of the physicochemical, microbial and sensory tests for cheese stored at refrigerator temperature for a period (zero) to (21) d of adding bacteriocin showed the superiority of the treatment of cheese added to 15 mL/kg cheese of bacteriocin over the rest of the other treatments during the storage period, where the acidity development decreased by 0.363 compared to Cheese with the control treatment, which was at a rate of 0.547, as well as a significant decrease in the number of microorganisms compared with the cheese treated with the control treatment, as well as a clear improvement in the sensory characteristics of soft cheese, which makes it qualified to be a biological preservative for the absence of negative effects on the properties of the obtained product. </strong></p> Kurdistan A Abdulkarem Suzan K Hasan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 90 102 EFFECT OF ADDING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DILL SEEDS TO THE DIET ON PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF BROILERS <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>This study was conducted in the poultry field of the department of animal production, college of agricultural engineering sciences, university of Baghdad for the period from 10/15/2021 to 11/25/2021 with the aim of showing the effect of adding different levels of dill seeds to the diet on productive and carcass traits For broiler meat. In this study, 200 unsexed broiler chicks of breed (Ross 308) were used, one day age, with a starting weight of 41.46 g. The chicks were randomly distributed to 5 treatments, and each treatment included 4 replicates, 10 birds for each replicate. The birds were fed three diets: the starter diet, the growth diet and the final diet. The experiment treatments were T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, adding dill seeds at average 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2%, respectively.</strong> <strong>The results of the experiment indicated a significantly (P&lt;0.05) excelled in cholesterol concentration at 42 d of age for treatment T4 compared with T2, and treatment T1 compared with treatment T2 in the level of triglycerides. Significantly excelled (P&lt;0.05) was observed when calculating the high-density lipoproteins for the two treatments T3 and T4 compared with T5. Also, treatment T1 excelled on treatment T2 in the concentration of very low-density lipoproteins, and a significant decrease (P&lt;0.01) in the level of MDA at 42 d of age was noted in favor of the addition treatments.</strong></p> Walaa Z Shnain Hasanain N Ezzat Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 103 109 PREPARATION AND STUDY OF THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME COMPLEXES WITH SCHIFF BASE LIGAND FOR CEFDINIR DERIVATIVE <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>Metal (II) complexes of Co, Ni, Cu and Zn with cefdinir C<sub>14</sub>H<sub>13</sub>N<sub>5</sub>O<sub>5</sub>S<sub>2</sub> derivative (L) were synthesized and identification by elemental analysis CHNS Uv-Vis, FTIR, TGA, metal analysis AA, magnetic susceptibility and conduct metric measurement. by analysis the ligand behaves as a bidentate. For the cobalt complex, Tetrahedral geometry shape was suggested, while other complexes that have nickel, copper and zinc ions were proposed as octahedral geometry shape. The experimental method was studied for prevention of corrosion carbon steel in 3.5% NaCl by using a novel Cefdinir derivations drugs. The results showed that metal complex was a strong corrosion resistance protect for carbon steel in sodium chloride and the inhibition efficiency (%) increased with increasing concentration of drugs due to that the novel Cefdinir derivative drugs metal complex was adsorpd from saline solution on surface of carbon steel.</strong></p> Haneen R Ali Sahar S Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 110 120 CONTROL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN FARM ANIMALS IN IRAQ <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>Agricultural production, food security and safety, public health animal welfare, access to markets and alleviation of rural poverty have been achieved by controlling on veterinary services to prevent animal disease. World organization for animal health guidelines focus on controlling of animal disease which depends on good governance and veterinary services quality. The aim of veterinary services is controlling and preventing animal disease some of other aspects; it's responsibility of early detection, rapid response to outbreaks of emerging or re-emerging animal disease, optimizing quality and effectiveness of disease prevention and control systems based on suitably adapted legislation and protect animal health as well as public health. Iraq has been focusing on controlling and preventing animal diseases through several aspects such as implementing laws, resolution on combating communicable disease, reporting communicable disease, setting a national policy for disease preventing and introducing health and vaccination programmers. Human and animal health have been protected from biological risks prevent pathogen spread in case of disease outbreak in a non- endemic area, disinfection of establishments, equipment and vehicles and temporary ban of movements animals.</strong></p> Asaad K. T Al-Shuwaili Jabbar K Tarsh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 121 126 THE ROLE OF EFFLUX PUMP FOR ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN BACTERIA <p><strong>ABSTRACT&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>The multi-drug resistant efflux pump is a glycoprotein pump whose function is to push foreign substances. The efflux pump is found in humans, animals. It also has wide-ranging properties in&nbsp; bacteria and fungi. They are found in all species of bacteria, and efflux pump genes can be found in bacterial chromosomes or mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids. The most sensitive function that leads to a global problem is its resistance to antibiotics in bacterial cells, which increases the ability to bacteria from becoming strong virulence factors that most or all antibiotics cannot kill. It also has other important functions. It is related to the defense mechanism of the horse by pushing all harmful substances. This pump is divided into five families. The division depends on the source of energy, symmetry, and the general structure. The major facilitator (MFS) superfamily; the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family and the adenosine-triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC); superfamily the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily&nbsp; and the small multidrug resistance (SMR). The ABC family uses ATP as a source of energy for export, while other flow pumps use the driving force of the proton. These hosts participate in many cellular processes such as intercellular communication, formation of cell membranes, virulence factors of bacterial cell, extrusion of toxic substances, disinfectants, toxic metabolic by-products, and antibiotics. It is also one of the important formations in bacteria that give bacteria the ability to expel antibiotics through various and diverse genes that are located either on the chromosome or plasmid of different pump families. Evidence indicates that the efflux pump has physiological functions in bacteria, and its overexpression has a role in inducing multi-drug resistance and biofilm formation. Hence, the regulation of efflux pump action is an orderly, strict action in response to physiological and environmental signals.</strong></p> Rana A. H AL-Lami Zina H Shehab Asmaa M. S. Almohaidi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 14 2 127 134